Notes (Chapter 2)

  1. For an extensive presentation of the establishment of the State of Israel, see Ian Lustic, "Arabs in the Jewish State", University of Texas Press 1980.
  2. The UNRWA definition of "refugee" refers to patrilineal descendants of persons who fled from the area that became the state of Israel in 1948.
  3. The "Triangle" refers to a small, but densely populated area, on the costal plain in the region between Hadera and Haifa.
  4. The FAFO living conditions survey has used the official Israeli borders for East Jerusalem when defining main regions. Application of the Israeli borders for Arab Jerusalem are, however, neither intended as a legitimization nor as a recognition of these borders in a legal sense. The justification for use of the Israeli borders is, on the contrary, their socio-economic impact on the Palestinian population living within them, taking the different legal status between Jerusalem and West Bank residents into account.
    Towards West Jerusalem, "East Jerusalem" has been defined as Arab neighborhoods east of the 1949 Green Line. After the war in 1948, Beit Safafa South remained the only area in West Jerusalem with compact Palestinian settlement. Except for this small area, 95% of the "Non-Jews" in Jerusalem live in the eastern part of the city, i.e. in areas covered by the FAFO survey.

    Since 1967 approximately 120 000 Jews have moved into Jewish neighbourhoods in the (geographical) area of "East Jerusalem", (i.e. the Jordanian part of Jerusalem prior to 1967). In contrast to the pre-1967 period, the extensive Jewish presence in East Jerusalem means that the geographical label "East" Jerusalem no longer refers to a part of the city exclusively populated by Palestinians. We have thus found the label "Arab Jerusalem" more appropriate for the Palestinian neighborhoods of the city comprised by the survey.

  5. Palestinian individuals
    "Palestinian" individuals are defined as all individuals in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem who are "residents" and not "foreigners", (i.e. "Palestinians). A "resident" is defined as a person who has been permanently living in Gaza, the West Bank or East Jerusalem for at least the past 4 months prior to the interview. People meeting this criteria are considered residents regardless of whether they hold a formal residency or not. Persons who have not lived in Gaza, the West Bank or East Jerusalem for at least the past 4 months prior to the interview are not considered as "residents" even if they hold an Israeli ID-card. A "foreigner" (i.e. in most cases an Israeli), is defined as an individual who has:
    1. A foreign passport
    2. At least one of the following:
      1. No parents of Palestinian heritage
      2. Who does not use Arabic as his or her primary language
    All other persons are considered "non-foreigners" (Palestinians), and should be surveyed if they are "residents".
    Palestinian households
    A "household" is defined as persons who are living together, and who pool their economic resources together, i.e. persons who live in the same housing unit, and share the same working kitchen.
    "Palestinian" households are defined as all households in the Gaza Strip/ West Bank/ East Jerusalem, where the majority of the inhabitants, 15 years or older, are considered as "Palestinians" according to the definition above.
  6. See Table A.2.1 and Table A.2.2 in the Population Appendix for further references to the discussion in this section.
  7. See end note 4 for definition of "Arab Jerusalem".
  8. The borders of the Gaza Strip and Israel were, as those of the West Bank, determined by the 1949 ceasefire lines between the Israeli and the Arab armies, rather than by topographic features.
  9. Refugee camps in Arab Jerusalem have not been placed in a separate stratum, but grouped with other areas in strata along a north/ south dimension. By chance, neither Shufat nor Kalandia refugee camps were selected when preparing the Arab Jerusalem sample. As a consequence, none of these two Arab Jerusalem refugee camps are covered by the survey. Results for refugees in Arab Jerusalem are thus strictly valid for the groups of refugees outside camps only.
  10. It is here referred to towns like Bethlehem and Ramallah which form part of Greater Jerusalem, but are situated on the West Bank.
  11. Jewish settlers are not included in this figure. For a detailed discussion of the population included in the survey, see end note 5.
  12. This survey's estimate for the Christian population share in Arab Jerusalem exceeds CBS results by 3-4% A possible explanation may be the inclusion of the Old Town "Christian Quarter" in the sample. When estimating the Christian population share in Arab Jerusalem it is worth noting that the results of this survey are different for the population of households, the population of individuals, 15 years or older, and the (total) population of individuals. Small average household size and low average numbers of children per adult household member in Christian households make the Christian population share vary from 21% to 18% and 15% for the three statistical populations respectively.
  13. See average number of children per adult in Christian households in Table A.2.8 in the Population Appendix.
  14. See Table A.2.3, Table A.2.4 and Table A.2.5 in the Population Appendix for further references to the discussion in this section.
  15. A common feature observed in many developing countries is a tendency of persons aged 40 years and more to state their age in "round" numbers. This means to some extent that there is a tendency to let ages end with 5, but in particular to give an age ending with 10. Age intervals containing the values 50, 60 and 70 are thus probably the most inflated ones compared to the "true" age distribution.
  16. See Table A.2.6, Table A.2.7, Table A.2.7, Table A.2.8 and Table A.2.9 in the Population Appendix for further references to the discussion in this section.
  17. Statistical abstract of Israel 1991, A. Main Series p.4. The basic definitions of "household" are parallel in the two surveys, but may of course have been implemented somewhat differently in the field.
  18. If regional variations had been due to parallel variations in adults and children, this ratio should have been constant over main regions.
  19. See Table A.2.10 in the Population Appendix for further references to the discussion in this section.
  20. The FAFO survey uses the concept Head of Household in two different ways. The starting point was the "acknowledged/ expected" Head of Household, the person being determined on the basis of the subjective opinion of the household members. In about 30% of the households the acknowledged Head of Household was not available or capable for doing the Head of Household interview. Among the not available or not capable Household Heads we distinguished between absence spanning a "short" time (less than 3 months) and a "long" time (more than 3 months). Two thirds of the 30% of Household Heads who were absent, were so for a short time only, while one third was absent for a long time.

    When the absence of the Household Head was of a short duration, (e.g. Head of Household was at work, etc), a "substitute" was used as respondent speaking on behalf of the Household Head. Any household member well informed about the economic affairs of the household could act as substitute for the Household Head, even though the spouse or oldest son of the Household Head were preferred. Approximately 80% of the substitutes were spouse of the Household Head, while 8% were the oldest son. In the households where the interview was made with a substitute, all information about the Head of Household as a person still refers to the acknowledged Household Head (and not the substitute).

    When the absence of the Head of Household had a prolonged character, e.g. when the accepted Household Head was senile, working abroad, in prison, etc., survey definitions overruled the subjective opinion of the household members. In these cases the concept of the functioning Head of Household was introduced to include the person in actual fact in charge of running daily household affairs.

    Approximately 90% of the acknowledged Household Heads were also in charge of the daily affairs of the household, i.e. they were also the functioning Household Heads. In 10% of the households, the functioning and the acknowledged Household Head was not the same person. In these households the personal information about the Head of Household refers to the functioning Household Head, and not to the acknowledged Household Head. In more than 7 out of 10 cases where the acknowledged and the functioning Head of Households were different persons, the functioning Head of Household was the spouse of the acknowledged Head of Household.

  21. Israeli Ministry of Health (1991). Health in Judea, Samaria and Gaza: 1990-1991, Jerusalem.
  22. Figures represent reported number of deaths of infants of ages between 0 and 12 months per 1000 live births.
  23. Calculated by the author using unweighted aggregated data.
  24. The reported birth rates have always been more than 40 births per 1000 population since 1968
  25. Research in progress, results are expected to be published in July, 1993.
  26. To the best of the author's knowledge.
  27. The Arab Thought Forum has published an estimate of the population total for each of the West Bank localities. Their estimates of population size for each locality were derived by direct interviewing of well informed persons in each locality.
  28. HABITAT (1989) has published population projections for OPT using ICBS estimate of input parameters. Planning and Research Center of Jerusalem (PRC) is currently working on a set of population projections for OPT localities using a combination of ICBS and Jordan data.
  29. UNICEF and JFPPA (1992) has conducted a nationwide sample survey and estimated the age structure of the population in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
  30. See the discussion of various estimates of population totals presented in WBDP (1987).

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