Source:

Book:         ARAMCO and its world
editors:      I. Nawwab, P. Speers and P. Hoye
Printed:      1981 (2nd printing)
Published:    Arabian American oil company
ISBN          0-9601164-2-7

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Description of the article about calligraphy:
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When the arabs went out of arabia to preach the new religion, their language
and their writing, though did'nt replace the languages and the scripts in the
places where the new religion was established, have become dominent. The use of
the language and writing spread from Morocco in the west to Indonisia in the
east. This wide spread use in various regions and by different people
have contributed, along with other factors, to the development
of a variety of scripts.
The articles reviews the various scripts, their origins, their uses and their
artistic qualities. Examples are provided.

*** This article comes in 10 gif files, each about 30K in size. They
are tiltled cal-1, cal-2, cal-3, cal-4, cal-5, cal-6, cal-7, cal-8, cal-9, 
and cal-10 ***


Description of the arabic literature article
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Arabic literature have passed through different phases of development.
In addition to the forms of literature that were known to the arabs before
Islam, the new religion (Islam), has brought with it a new richness to the
already known forms. Activities such as documenting the prophets "Hadith",
religious lessons, religious poems...etc have appeared. Later and with
establishment of rich and powerful states, literature had seen further
development. The documentation about conquered places, the translated work
of other nations and the style of life that had encouraged poetry and
writing have produced more variety and richness. At that time, classicism
in arabic literature has reached the peak. Later, the middle east saw
a non-arab domination which in turn affected the literature. In the 19th
century and the early 20th century a revival in literature took place.
The modern arabic literature was born.
The articles reviews the phases of development, the forms of literature
and the prominent writers and poets that have contributed throught the 
ages and in the various places.

*** This article comes in 11 files about 30K each, titled lit-1, lit-2, 
lit-3, lit-4, lit-5, lit-6,  lit-7, lit-8, lit-9, lit-10 and, lit-11. ***

Description of the article on the numerals
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The article discusses the origin of the arabic numeration system.
A comparaison is shown between different systems of numeration and hilights
 the contribution that the arabic system brought to mathematics.

*** This article comes in two files (of 15 and 50 K) num-1 and num-2. ***


contribution by "I.Ballouz"