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References and Bibliography

Books and articles:

    Abu-Hamad, Aziz. "Communal Strife in Lebanon: Ancient Animosities or State Intervention?", Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 49, no. 1 (Summer 1995).

    AbuKhalil As'ad. "Syria and the Shiites: Al-Asad's Policy in Lebanon", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 2 (April 1990).

    _______________."Hizbullah in Lebanon: Islamisation of Leninist Organisational Principles", Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (July 1991).

    Ajami, Fouad. The Vanished Imam - Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon. (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996).

    Bailey, Clinton. "Lebanon's Shi'is After the 1982 War", in Martin Kramer (ed.), Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

    Beydhon, Ahmad. "The South Lebanon Border Zone: A Local Perspective", Journal of Palestinian Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Spring 1992), pp. 35-53.

    Bishara, Marwan. "Acting Tough: Israel's Domestic Imperatives", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi, (eds) Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    Brynen, Rex. "Palestinian-Lebanese Relations: A Political Analysis", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Calabrese, John. Revolutionary Horizons: Regional Foreign Policy in Post-Khomeini Iran (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994).

    Charif, Hassan. "Regional Development and Integration", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Chartouni-Dubarry. "Hizballah: From Militia to Political Party", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi, Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    Collings, Deirdre. (ed.) Peace for Lebanon? From War to Reconstruction (Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993).

    Deeb, Marius. "Shia Movements in Lebanon: Their formation, Ideology, Social Basis, and Links with Syria and Iran", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2 (April 1988): pp. 683-698.

    Deegan, Heather. Middle East and Problems of Democracy (Buckimham, Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1993).

    Esposito, John l.. (ed.) The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact (Miami, FL.: Florida International Press, 1990).

    ______________. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

    ______________. Islam The Straight Path (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

    Evron, Yair. War and Intervention in Lebanon: The Israeli-Syrian Deterrence Dialouge (London: Croom Helm, 1987).

    Fadlallah, Muhammad Hussein. "The Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Uprising: The Islamic Jihad Perspective", Middle East Insight, Vol. 5, No. 6 (1988): pp. 4-12.

    Faris, Hanis. "The Failure of Peacemaking in Lebanon, 1975-1989", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

    Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut To Jerusalem (New York: Anchor Books, 1989).

    Hamzeh, Nizar A. "Lebanon's Hizbullah: from Islamic Revolution to Parliamentary Accomodation", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1993): pp. 321-37.

    Hanf, Theodor. Coexistence in Wartime Lebanon (London: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1993).

    Harik, Judith. "Between Islam and the System: sources and implications of popular support for Lebanon's Hizballah", Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 40, No. 1 (March 1996) pp. 41-67.

    Harris, William. Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars and Global Extensions (Princeton: Marcus Winer Publishers, 1997)

    Heller, Mark. "Weighing Israel's Options Now", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi, (eds.) Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    Hiro, Dhilip. Fire and Embers - A History of the Lebanese Civil War (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1993).

    Hollis, Rosemary & Shehadi, Nadim, (eds) Lebanon on Hold: Implications for the Middle East Peace (Oxford: Centre of Lebanese Studies, 1996).

    Khazen, Farid El. "Lebanon's First Postwar Parliamentary Elections, 1993", Middle East Policy, Vol. 3, No. (1994).

    Kramer, Martin. (ed.) Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1987).

    __________________. The Moral Logic of Hizballah (Tel Aviv: The Shiloah Institute Tel Aviv University, 1987).

    __________________. Hezballah's Vision of the West (Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1989).

    __________________."Hizbullah: the Calculus of Jihad", in Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalism and the State (1993).

    Lewis, Bernard. "The Shi'a in Islamic History", in Martin Kramer (ed.), Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

    Maila, Joseph. "The Ta'if Accord: An Evaluation", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Marty, Martin E. & E. Scott Appleby. (eds) Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

    _________________. Fundamentalism and the State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 19939.

    Murphy W. Richard. "The Cost of the Wrath: An American Perspective", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi, (eds) Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Austin TX: University of Texas Press, 1987).

    _________________. "The Origins and Resurgence of Amal", in Martin Kramer (ed.) Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

    _________________. "Lebanon: The Internal Conflict and the Iranian Connection", in John L. Esposito (ed.), The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact (1990).

    _________________. "Lebanon after Ta'if: Is the Civil War Over?", Middle East Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3 (Summer 1991): pp. 456-473.

    _________________. "(In)Security Zones in South Lebanon", Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Autumn 1993) pp. 61-79.

    _________________. "Israel in the Grip of the Insecurity Zone", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi (eds.), Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    Norton, Augustus R. & Schwedler, Jillian. "Swiss Soldiers, Ta'if Clocks, and Early Elections: Toward a Happy Ending?", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Olmert, Joseph. "The Shi'is and the Lebanese State", in Martin Kramer (ed), Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

    Peres, Shimon. Battling for Peace (London: Weidenfeld Nicholson, 1995).

    Picard, Elizabeth. The Lebanese Shia and Political Violence, Discussion Paper, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (1993).

    Rabinovich, Itamar. The War for Lebanon, 1970-1983 (London: Cornell University Press, 1984).

    Ramazani, R. K. "Iran's Export of the Iranian Revolution: Politics, Ends, and Means", in John L. Esposito, (ed) The Iranian Revolution (1990).

    Randall, Jonathan. The Tradegy of Lebanon (London: The Hogart Press, 1983).

    Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997).

    Sachedina, Abdulaziz A. "Activist Shi'ism in Iran, Iraq and Lebanon", in Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby (eds.) Fundamentalism Observed (1991).

    Sbaiti, Ahmed A. "Reflections on Lebanon's Reconstruction", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

    Schiff, Ze'ev; Ya'ari, Ehud. Israel's Lebanon War (New York, NY.: Simon and Schuster, 1984).

    Shapira, Shimon. "The Origins Of Hizballah", The Jerusalem Quarterly, Vol. 46 (Spring 1988): pp. 115-30.

    Trendle, Giles. "Hizballah: Pragmatism and Popular Standing", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi (eds.), Lebanon on Hold (1996).

    ____________. "Boom or Bust", in The Middle East (February 1997): pp. 5-7.

    Yaniv, Avner. Dilemmas of Security: Politics, Strategy and the Israeli Experience in Lebanon (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

    Zisser, Eyal. "Hizballah in Lebanon - At the Crossroads", Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Summer 1996) pp. 90-109.

    Zonis, Marvin & Brumberg, Daniel. "Shi'ism as Interpreted by Khomeini: An Ideology of Revolutionary Violence", in Martin Kramer, (ed) Shi ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

Newspapers and periodicals:


    Foreign Report

    Jerusalem Post (international edition)

    Journal of Conflict Resolution

    Journal of International Affairs

    Journal of Palestinian Studies

    Middle East Insight

    Middle East International

    Middle East Journal


    Monday Morning

    New Statesman and Society


    Terrorism and Political Violence

    The Middle East

    Time Magazine

    Leb-Net Daily Digest is a subscription from internet: lebnet@lebnet.org

List of informants in Beirut:

    Atrissi, Talal, Dr. of Sociology, The Lebanese University 3 June 1996.

    Fneish, Muhammad, M. P. Hizballah, 4 June 1996

    Merhi, Youssef, Head of Hizballah Foreign Relations Department, 20 May 1996

    Mortada, Abdallah, spokesman at Hizballah Foreign Relation Department, 16 May; 4 June; 6 June 1996.

    Oleik, Kassem, Head of Hizballah Holy Reconstruction Department (Jihad al-Bina) 29 May 1996.

    Shehadi, Kamal, Dr. of Political Science at The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, 23 May 1996.

    Souleiman, Samir, Dr. of Islamic Civilization at the Lebanese University, 25 May 1996.

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