Mats Wärn: Staying the Course: the "Lebanonization" of Hizbullah

[Prev] [Contents] [Next]

References and Bibliography

Books and articles:

Abrahamanian, Ervand. Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (London: I.B. Tauris, 1993).

AbuKhalil As'ad. "Hizbullah in Lebanon: Islamisation of Leninist Organisational Principles", Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (July 1991).

Agha, Hussein J. & Khalidi, Ahmad S. Syria & Iran Rivalry and Cooperation (London: Pinter Publishers, 1995).

Amirahmadi, Hooshang & Parvin, Manoucher. Iran and the Arab World. (London: Macmillan, 1993).

Ajami, Fouad. The Vanished Imam - Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon. (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996).

Anderson, Lisa. "Lawless Government and Illegal Opposition: Reflections on the Middle East", in Journal of International Affairs 40:1 (Winter/Spring 1987).

_____________. "Fulfilling Prophecies: State Policy and Radical Islamism", in Esposito, John L. (ed), Political Islam Revolution, Radicalism or Reform? (London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. 1997).

Appleby, Scott. (ed) "Introduction", in Spokesmen of the Despised (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Arjomand, Said Amir. "Political Theory and Practice", in Seeyed Hossein Nasr, Hamid Dabashi & Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (eds), Expectation of the millenium 1998.

Ayubi, Nazib. Political Islam Religion and Politics in the Arab World (London & New York: Routledge 1993).

___________. "Islam and democracy", in David Potter, David Goldblatt, Margaret Kiloh, Paul Lewis, Democratization (197).

Bailey, Clinton. "Lebanon's Shi'is After the 1982 War", in Martin Kramer (ed.), Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

Beckman, Björn. "Explaining democratization. Notes on the concept of civil society". Paper presented on a Conference of Civil Society, Swedish Research Institute, Istanbul, October 1996.

Beinin, Joel & Stork, Joe. (eds) Political Islam (Essays from Middle East Report), (London: I.B. Tauris 1997).

Beydhon, Ahmad. "The South Lebanon Border Zone: A Local Perspective", Journal of Palestinian Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Spring 1992), pp. 35-53.

Bobbio, Roberto. "Gramsci and the Conception of Civil Society", in C. Mouffe (ed) Gramsci and Marxist Theory (London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1979).

Bromley, Simon. "Middle East exceptionalism - myth or reality?", in David Potter, David Goldblatt, Marget Kiloh, Paul Lewis (eds), Democratization (1997).

Collings, Deirdre. (ed.) Peace for Lebanon? From War to Reconstruction (Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993).

Deeb, Marius. "Shia Movements in Lebanon: Their formation, Ideology, Social Basis, and Links with Syria and Iran", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2 (April 1988): pp. 683-698.

Deegan, Heather. Middle East and Problems of Democracy (Buckimham, Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1993).

Esposito, John L. & Voll, John V., Islam and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Esposito, John l.. (ed.) The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact (Miami, FL.: Florida International Press, 1990).

______________.Political Islam Revolution, Radicalism, or Reform? (London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997).

Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut To Jerusalem (New York: Anchor Books, 1989).

Fuller, Graham. Algeria The Next Fundamentalist State? (Santa Monica CA: Rand, 1996).

George, David. "Pax Islamica: An Alternative New World Order?", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (eds), Islamic Fundamentalism (1996).

Ghadbian, Najib. Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press 1997). Göle, Nilufer. "Authoritarian Secuarism and Islamist Politics: the Case of Turkey", in A.R Norton (ed), Civil Society in the Middle East vol. 2 (1996).

Hamizrachi, Beate. The Emergence of the South Lebanon Security Belt (New York: Praeger, 1988).

Hamzeh, Nizar A. "Lebanon's Hizbullah: from Islamic Revolution to Parliamentary Accomodation", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1993): pp. 321-37.

Hanf, Theodor. Coexistence in Wartime Lebanon (London: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1993).

Harik, Judith. "Between Islam and the System: sources and implications of popular support for Lebanon's Hizballah", Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 40, No. 1 (March 1996) pp. 41-67.

____________."Syrian Foreign Policy and State/Resistance Dynamics in Lebanon", in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, vol. 20 no. 3 1997.

Harris, William. Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars and Global Extensions (Princeton: Marcus Winer Publishers, 1997)

Hinnenbusch, Raymond A. "Does Syria Want Peace? Syrian Policy in the Syrian-Israeli Peace negotiations", in Journal of Palestine Studies XXVI, no. 1 (Autumn 1996).

Hollis, Rosemary & Shehadi, Nadim, (eds) Lebanon on Hold: Implications for the Middle East Peace (Oxford: Centre of Lebanese Studies, 1996).

Hunter, Shireen T. "Iran and Syria: From Limited Hostility to Limited Alliance", in Hooshang Amirahmadi & Nader Entessar (eds), Iran and the Arab World (1993).

Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations", in Foreign Affairs no. 3 (summer 1993).

Jaber, Hala. "Hezbollah Born With a Vengeance", (London: Fourth Estate Limited, 1997).

Jafri, Husayn. "The Nahj al-Balaghah and the Teachings of the Imams," in Sayyed Hossein Nasr, Hamid Dabashi and Sayyed Vali Reza (eds), Shi'ism (Doctrines, Thought, and Spirituality) (1988).

Kazemi, Farhad. "The Inclusion Imperative" (reprinted from the Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, December 1996). On internet: http://www.cua.edu/www/mesabul/kazemi.htm.

Kazziha, Walid. "The Impact of Palestine on Arab Politics", in Giacomo Luciani (ed), The Arab State, 1990.

Khazen, Farid El. "Lebanon's First Postwar Parliamentary Elections, 1993", Middle East Policy, Vol. 3, No. (1994).

_______________. The Communal Pact of National Identities: The Making and Politics of the 1943 National Pact, Papers on Lebanon 12 (Oxford: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1991).

Khomeini, Rohullah al-Mosawi. "Manifest of the Islamic Revolution" (Droudian_Honar, 1987).

Kramer, Martin. (ed.) Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1987).

__________________. The Moral Logic of Hizballah (Tel Aviv: The Shiloah Institute Tel Aviv University, 1987).

__________________. Hezballah's Vision of the West (Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1989).

__________________. "Hizbullah: the Calculus of Jihad", in Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalism and the State (1993).

__________________. "The Oracle of Hizbollah", in R. Scott Appleby (ed), Spokesmen of the Despised (1997).

Krämer, Gudrun. "The Integration of the Integrists: a comparative study of Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia", in Ghassan Salamé (ed), Democracy Without Democrats? (1994).

Leenders, Reinoud. "Hizbullah's Baalbek Reversal", in The Middle East International 19th June 1998.

Lesch, W. David. The Middle East and the United States (Oxford: Westview Press 1996.

Lewis, Bernard. "A Historical Overview", Journal of Democracy no. 2 (April 1996).

______________. "The Roots of Muslim Rage", Atlantic Monthly 226(3) (September 20, 1990).

Luciani, Giacomo. (ed) The Arab State (London: Routledge, 1990).

Mackey, Sandra. The Iranians Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation (Harmondsworth: Plume, 1996).

Maila, Joseph. "The Ta'if Accord: An Evaluation", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

Mallat, Chibli. Aspects of Shi'i Thought from the South of Lebanon, Prospects for Lebanon no. 7 (Oxford: The Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1992). To be found on internet: http://nonuniv.ox.au.uk/cls/mallat.htm#.

Marty, Martin E. & E. Scott Appleby. (eds) Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

_________________. Fundamentalism and the State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.)

Moussai, Ahmad S. "Modern Islamic Fundamentalist Discourses on Civil Society, Pluralism and Democracy", in A.R. Norton (ed) Civil Society in the Middle East, 1994.

Miller, Judith. "The Challenge of Radical Islam", in Foreign Affairs no. 2 (Spring 1993).

Milton-Edwards, Beverly. "Climate of Change in Jordan's Islamist Movement", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (eds), Islamic Fundamentalism (1996).

Murphy W. Richard. "The Cost of the Wrath: An American Perspective", in Rosemary Hollis & Nadim Shehadi, (eds) Lebanon on Hold (1996).

Muir, Jim. "The Syrian-Lebanese treaty: grounds for concern or hope?", in The Middle East International, 31st May 1991.

Nasr, S.V.R. "Islamic Opposition in the Political Process: Lessons from Pakistan", in John L. Esposito, Political Islam 1997.

Nasrallah, Fida. The Questions of South Lebanon, Prospects for Lebanon no. 5 (Oxford: Center for Lebanese Studies, 1992).

Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Austin TX: University of Texas Press, 1987). (a)

_________________. "The Origins and Resurgence of Amal", in Martin Kramer (ed.) Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987). (b)

_________________. "Lebanon: The Internal Conflict and the Iranian Connection", in John L. Esposito (ed.), The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact (1990).

_________________. "Lebanon after Ta'if: Is the Civil War Over?", Middle East Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3 (Summer 1991): pp. 456-473.

_________________. "(In)Security Zones in South Lebanon", Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Autumn 1993) pp. 61-79.

_________________. "The Challenge of Inclusion in the Middle East", Current History, January 1995.

_________________. "Lebanon: With Friends Like These...", Current History, January 1997.

_________________. Civil Society in the Middle East, vol 1 (Leiden: E.J. Brill 1994).

_________________. Civil Society in the Middle East, vol 2 (Leiden: E.J. Brill 1996).

Norton, Augustus R. & Schwedler, Jillian. "Swiss Soldiers, Ta'if Clocks, and Early Elections: Toward a Happy Ending?", in Deirdre Collings (ed.), Peace for Lebanon? (1993).

Olmert, Joseph. "The Shi'is and the Lebanese State", in Martin Kramer (ed), Shi'ism, Resistance and Revolution (1987).

Owen, Roger. State, Power and Politics in the making of the Modern Middle East (London: Routledge, 1992).

Picard, Elizabeth. "The Lebanese Shi'a and Political Violence in Lebanon," in David E. Apter (ed), The Legitimacy of Violence (London: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1997).

Pipes, Daniel. "There Are No Moderates: Dealing With Fundamentalist Islam", in The National Interest, Fall 1995.

Rabinovich, Itamar. The War for Lebanon, 1970-1983 (London: Cornell University Press, 1984).

Ramazani, R. K. Revolutionay Iran: Challenge and Response in the Middle East (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press 1986).

Ransome, Paul. Antonio Gramsci (New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992).

Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997).

________________. "Hizbollah's Command Leadership: Its structure, Decision-Making and Relationship with Iranian Clergy and Institutions", Terrorism and Political Violence vol. 6 no. 3 (autumn 1994).

Rueschemeyer, D., Stephens, E. & Stephens, J. Capitalist Development and Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992).

Robinson, Glenn E. "Can Islamists be democrats? The case of Jordan", Middle East Journal no. 3 (summer 1997). (a)

_________________. Building a Palestinian State (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997). (b)

Sachedina, Abdulaziz A. "Activist Shi'ism in Iran, Iraq and Lebanon", in Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby (eds.) Fundamentalism Observed (1991).

Salamé, Ghassan. (ed) Democracy Without Democrats? The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World (London: Tauris, 1994).

_______________. Lebanon's Injured Identities, papers on Lebanon no. 2 (Oxford: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1986).

Salla, Michael. "Political Islam and the West: a New Cold War or convergence?", Third World Quarterly no. 4 1997.

Sayigh, Rosemary. Too Many Enemies The Palestinian Experience in Lebanon (LOndon: Zed Books Ltd, 1994).

Schiff, Ze'ev; Ya'ari, Ehud. Israel's Lebanon War (New York, NY.: Simon and Schuster, 1984).

Seale, Patrick. Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East (Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1988).

____________. "Asad's Regional Strategy and the Challenge from Netanyahu", Journal of Palestine Studies XXVI no. 1 (Autumn 1996).

Shapira, Shimon. "The Origins Of Hizballah", The Jerusalem Quarterly, Vol. 46 (Spring 1988): pp. 115-30.

Sidahmed, Abdel Salam. "Sudan: Ideology and Pragmatism", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Sidahmed, Islamic Fundamentalism 1996.

Sidahmed, Abdel Salam & Ehteshami, Anoushiravan. (eds) Islamic Fundamentalism (Oxford: Westview Press, 1996).

Sidahmed, Abdel Salam. "Sudan: Ideology and Pragmatism", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (eds), Islamic Fundamentalism (1996).

Sivan, Emmanuel. "The Islamic Resurgence: Civil Society Strikes Back, in Journal of Contemporary History vol. 25 1990. (a)

________________. "Islamic Radicalism: Sunni and Shi'ite", in Emmanuel Sivan & Menachim Friedman, Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East 1990). (b)

Sivan, Emmanuel & Friedman, Menachim. Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East (Albany: University of New York Press, 1990).

Subaida, Sami. "Is Iran an Islamic State?", in Joel Beinin & Joe Stork, Political Islam (1997).

Tabataba'i, Allamah. "The Shi'i interpretation of the Qu'ran", in Sayyed Hossein Nasr, Hamid Dabashi and Sayyed Vali Reza Nasr (eds), Shi'ism (Doctrines, Thought and Spirituality), 1988.

Taji-Farouki, Suha. "Islamic State Theories and Contemporary Realities", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (eds), Islamic Fundamentalism (1996).

Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: social movements, collective actions and politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Trendle, Giles. "Obstacles to Hizbullah's bid for power", in The Middle East International, 2nd August 1996.

Tripp, Charles. "Islam and the Secular Logic of the State in the Middle East", in Abdel Salam Sidahmed & Anoushiravan Ehteshami (eds), Islamic Fundamentalism (1996).

Usher, Graham. "What kind of nation? The rise of Hamas in the occupied territories", Race & Class, 37, 2 (1995).

______________."Hizballah, Syria, and the Lebanese Elections", Journal of Palestine Studies XXVI no. 2 (Winter 1997).

Wright, Robin. Sacred Rage (London: 1986).

Wärn, Mats. A Voice of Resistance: The Point of View of Hizballah, BA thesis, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University (1997) (to be found on internet: almashriq.hiof.no).

Yaniv, Avner. Dilemmas of Security: Politics, Strategy and the Israeli Experience in Lebanon (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne. "Islamist Perceptions of U.S. Policy in the Middle East", in David W. Lesch, The Middle East and the United States 1996.

Newspapers and periodicals:

    The Beirut Daily Star

    Foreign Report

    Ha'aretz (english edition)

    Jerusalem Post (international edition)

    Journal of International Affairs

    Journal of Palestinian Studies

    The Lebanon Report

    The Middle East

    Middle East Insight

    Middle East International

    Middle East Journal

    Monday Morning

    Terrorism and Political Violence

    Time Magazine

List of informants in Lebanon(interviews):

Bayan, Ibrahim. M.P. (Sunni Muslim) and member of the Bloc Loyal to the Resistance, Beirut, 20th May 1998.

Fadlallah, Hassan. Head of Hizbollah radio station al-Noor (the Light), Beirut, 6th June 1998.

Fadlallah, Sayyed Muhammed Husayn. Beirut, 8th June 1998.

Fisk, Robert. Middle East correspondent for The Independent (British daily), Beirut, 27th April 1998.

Gamal, Hajj Mofak. Chief editor on Al-Ahd (a Hizbollah weekly), 29th April 1998.

Goksel, Timor. Spokesman for the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), south Lebanon, 12th May 1998.

Goraib, Issa. Chief editor on Le Orient Le Jour (Lebanese daily in French), Beirut 21st May 1998.

Hamzeh, Nizar. Professor in political science, the American University of Beirut, 4th May 1998.

Harb, Hajj Hanis. Manager at the Martyr's Foundation, Beirut, 28th April 1998.

Harik Palmer, Judith. Professor in political science, the American University of Beirut, 19th May 1998.

Hassan, Husayn Hajj. Hizbollah M.P., Beirut, 26th May 1998.

Hejazi, Sayyed Molid. Head of the technical department at the Hospital of the Omnipotent Prophet, Beirut, 9th May 1998.

Husayn, Sister Fatima. Manager, Hizbollah's Women Organization, Beirut, 28th May 1998.

Kayrouz, Rabiah. M.P. (Christian Maronite) and member of the Bloc Loyal to the Resistance, Beirut, 20th May 1998.

Mashmoussi, Muhammad. Deputy editor at al-Safir (Lebanese daily), Beirut, 27th May 1998.

Mortada, Dr. Abdallah. Spokesman at the Foreign Relation Office of Hizbollah, Beirut, 2nd and 4th June 1998.

Moshen, Dr. Mohammed. Assistent professor at the Lebanese University in Masscommunication and Journalism. He is also a member of the board and director of the Lebanese communication groups and Al-Manar (a TV station loyal to the Islamic resistance). Beirut, 2nd June 1998.

Naim, Dr. Nabil. Head of Hizbollah's student orgnanization, Beirut, 4th May 1998.

Qaouk, Sheikh Nabil. Political and military commandant of Hizbollah in south Lebanon, 30th April 1998.

Salem, Paul. Political analyst at the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, Beirut, 23rd April 1998.

Young, Michael. Political analyst at the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies and weekly columnist at The Beirut Daily Star, Beirut, 16th May 1998.


[Prev] [Contents] [Next]
----------------

al@mashriq

20000305/bl