Possibly the greatest danger threatening Lebanon currently is the disastrous state of the foundation of life, the disastrous state of our environment. This catastrophe is not limited to Lebanon, but, as you know, is a worldwide problem bred by ignorance and greed. An important point to be kept in mind is that demographic tendencies, the protection of the environment and a lasting economic development are closely connected and policies must aim at creating balanced objectives among these three fields.
Woods cover about 6 percent of the surface of Lebanon. The fertile lands represent 12 percent of Lebanon's surface. They are quickly disappearing due to the savage urbanization. The protection of these fertile lands constitutes a first priority because their dis appearance will lead to a natural catastrophe for the development of agriculture. Furthermore, the pollution due to solid wastes and pesticides requires a serious control over the quality and the quantity of the products used. In addition, the loss of species in Lebanon is an almost irreversible process that inevitably will result in tremendous ecological havoc.
Pollution: Air,Water, Soil
Pollution is defined as the introduction by people into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause h azard to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structures, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment.
Pollution includes: mining, burying toxins, gases from factories, the leaded gas from cars, chemicals in agriculture, use of toxins in undetermined, unstudied fashions, sewage waste and factory wastewater, destruction and change of the soil in construction and quarry activities, including water - soil - and air. It is not only the opposite of cleanliness, but encompasses every destruction and havoc placed upon the environment In essence, pollution has three parts: soil, air, and water.
Unfortunately, the policy followed by the Lebanese government since the 1950s always has been based on the extension of the field of industry and the encouragement of exports, without regard to environmental concerns. The State favored high-productivity or high-value-added concerns by adopting certain fiscal, customs and commercial measures. "No reference has ever been made on the impact of industry on the surroundings or on the protection of the environment, although development in given sector affects the environment and other sectors in the either a positive or negative manner" (National Report on the Environment a nd Development i Lebanon, 1991).
Sources of Pollution
Toxic matters released by industries, and the precipitation of matters in suspension in the air emanating from industry and from all combustion process in general are a primary source of air and water pollution. The production of electrical energy pollutes the atmosphere by the discharge of thermo-electric power plants. The sulfur content of fuel used in Lebanon is high and so are SO2 emissions. Cement works, refineries, thermo electric power houses and a multiplicity of generators and small combustion sources are the major pollutants of the atmosphere.
In addition, liquid and solid wastes discharged from industries have resulted in significant water pollution. Industrial firms on the c oast discharge their waste waters into the sea without any treatment. Inland industries discharge waste waters generally into the nearest stream and without treatment. Some industries evacuate their waste waters into deep bore-holes with the risk of contamination of underground waters and springs that sprout in downward spots. Furthermore, industrial solid wastes are generally deposited with municipal refuse without any particular measures taken.
2. Non-industrial solid wastes and waste waters
Non-industrial solid wastes and waste waters are a primary factor in freshwater water, sea water and soil pollution. Wastes brought by waste-water conveyors are poured directly onto the coast without any treatment. Wastes from marinas and pleasure boats, and wastes left about by vacationers and shore users further contribute to sea pollution. In addition, waste waters are poured into the sea and freshwater without any treatment.
Uncontrolled qualities and quantities of pesticides, insecticid es, herbicides and fertilizers, and the bad utilization of animal fertilizers on agriculture lands result in both water and soil pollution.
Atmospheric pollution which constitutes for ordinary citizens the most evident aspect of the problem of the environment has been the least researched in Lebanon. The air of the cities and areas of large human population is poor, and the quality of the air decreases with the increase of factories and with the formation of enveloping fog around the citie s. In 1973, the National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR) launched a scheme for the continuous observation of contents in the air of harmful matters (gas and dust). The war put an end to the project and since then atmospheric pollution problems continued to worsen.
Air pollution has not been the subject of any regulation with the exception of the prohibition of the importation and use of diesel vehicles (law of the 10th June, 1961 and decree 579 of the 1st August, 1956) and the required conditions for vehicle engines, which currently are not being applied. There exists no authority in Lebanon which is directly responsible for the quality of the air and the protection of the atmosphere against pollution.
The major pollutants of the atmosphere ar e the cement works, refineries, thermo-electric power houses, a multiplicity of small combustion sources, and generators installed at numerous industrial premises and residences to compensate for power cuts. Production of electrical energy pollutes the a tmosphere by the discharge of thermo-electric power plants. The sulfur content of fuel used in Lebanon is high and so are SO2 emissions. However, fuel of low sulfur content costs 20 to 30% more than the type at present used. The treatment of pollutants is also costly and would represent substantial charges to the cost of energy.
With the exception of waters at high altitudes where there are no at present constructions above their levels, all Lebanese waters are exposed to pollution due to the lack of a system for the evacuation of solid and liquid residues and the lack of a control and water-protection system against pollution. The diseases transmitted by water and prevalent in Lebanon are typhoid, hepatitis, and dysentery. The resul ts of a large number of tests made at different periods for waters of different origins have proved the existence of bacteriological pollution.
Due to the war, statistics are scarce in Lebanon. However, it is well known in the country that diseases tran smitted by water are widespread. In 1990, there were four known epidemics transmitted by polluted drinking water:
Industrial and non-industrial liquid and solid wastes are the primary contributors to water pollution. Industrial firms on the coast discharge their waste waters into the sea wi thout any treatment. Inland industries discharge waste waters generally into the nearest stream and without treatment. In addition, some industries evacuate their waste waters into deep bore-holes with the risk of contamination of underground waters and springs that sprout in downward spots. Also, industrial solid wastes are generally evacuated with municipal refuse without any necessary particular measures taken.
Non-industrial solid and liquid wastes pose a "permanent danger for public health and environment" (National Report on the Environment and Development in Lebanon, 1991). Frequently, waste waters are directly evacuated in rivers or in the sea, without any preliminary treatment. Sometimes, these waste waters are used for irrigation. Ninety percent of the solid wastes are directly dumped into natural areas along the roads... or are directly burnt without considering the consequent atmospheric pollution and the potential danger of the spread of fire.
In what relates to waste-water management, the current population is estimated at 4,700,000 persons, taking into account non-Lebanese residents, temporary displacements and secondary residences. Relating to household refuse, the quantity of solid waste is of some 0.7 to 6 .9 Kg/resident/day, that is a total of 3800 tons/day approximately of solid wastes for the whole of Lebanon.
Waste-waters are not treated in Lebanon. Sewers of coastal agglomerations or agglomerations near the coast, Beirut included, pour waste-waters o nto the shore either directly or by way of a very short conveyor or a small rivulet flowing into the sea. Inland, agglomerations served by a public network generally pour their waste-water into the nearest stream. Inhabitants who utilize their own means of waste-water disposal usually have unlined cesspools or drill deep wells and merely inject waste-waters into the soil or simply dispose of them at the soil's surface. "A situation of this type has a catastrophic impact on the environment in Lebanon particularly in what relates to beach and water pollution. The whole population bears the consequences" (National Report on the Environment and Development, 1991).
Forty-three percent of the population is not served by a collection system of household rubbish. Generally, trash collection is insured in large agglomerations. Small agglomerations (less than 5000 inhabitants) usually attach themselves to neighboring larger agglomerations since alone they cannot afford the personnel and equipment needed for the task.
Only Beirut had, before the war in 1975, a working solid-waste treatment plan. It had a capacity of 700 tons per day which has now gone down to no more than 100 tons/day. It produced compost through a combined mechanical and biological treatment.
Elsewhere, waste is transferred to uncontrolled discharge sites which pollute the air, the sea and waters, spoil the scenery and represent imminent risks to public health. Waste management and the collection and evacuation of solid wastes are at the charge of municipalities which are often small and have small budgets. There is approximately one thousand villages which have no municipalities, and therefore have no authority responsible for solid wastes.
In an effort to resolve this problem, the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) with the assistance of UNDP and WHO prepared in 1980-82 the "Master Plan for Waste Water Management" and the "Master Plan for Solid-Wastes Management", UNDP LEB/77/033 and WHO/BSM/001. Unfortunately, both have yet to be implemented.
From the beginning, people have been accustomed to throw whatever they wish into the sea - thus, the sea has carried the waste products of humans and animals, food waste, chemical products and byproducts, agricu ltural chemicals, petrol, plastic bags, aluminum products, and numerous heavy metals, consequently killing the animals living in the sea and affecting the ecological balance, such as leading to the deaths of sea turtles and the dramatic increase in jellyfish. In Lebanon, the sewage has become underwater rivers in the sea - increasing rates of cholera and typhoid.
In 1985, the results of a study on the pollution of coastal waters carried out since 1979 and based on 40 stations scattered along the coast revealed considerable present macroscopic visible pollution. The primary sources of such pollution are the wastes brought by waste-water conveyors which are deposited directly onto the coast without any pre-treatment, and the wastes from marinas and pleasure boats, and wastes left about by vacationers and shore users.
By virtue of Article 6 of Regulation 1104 of the 14th November, 1961, it is forbidden to throw into the sea along the coast any matters that could infect the water, affect, intoxicate fish. The same prohibition applies to factories situated on the coast for the disposal of residues which cannot be thrown into the sea except at the conditions of the authorization for which to be applied.
The current manner in which the coast is exploited is c learly detrimental and destructive, both for the coast and for the future of Lebanon. The use of explosives destroys sea fauna, and causes other unforeseen problems. The direct outpour of sewage, industrial waste and household refuse without prior treatment and with no sanitary measures has transformed the Lebanese beaches into trash dumps and the Lebanese coast into underwater sewers. The removal of maritime accretions at low depths threatens the destruction of what is left of the beaches and even the destruction of neighboring gardens during winter storms. Lastly, the small coastal plain, generally very narrow at the foot of the mountain, is already lost to increasing urbanization in Tripoli, Jounieh, Antelias, Beirut, Sidon, and Tyre. The coast is being transformed into concrete, a linear city of catastrophic architecture along the coast.
Soil is the foundation of terrestrial communities, the site of decomposition of organic matter and the return of mineral elements to the nutrient cycle. Soil is the very basis of development in the natural sense, and this foundation is dramatically deteriorating in Lebanon.
There is a tremendous increase today in the use of chemicals and in the use of synthetic fertilizer, all without any study into this matter. Consequently, there has been an increase in foreign particles and chemicals in the soil, under trees, and a drenching of agricultural products in chemicals, leading to, what can be described as, the burning of the land, or, in oth er words - the killing of the bacteria that lives within the soil. The bacteria''s demise affects the rates of decomposition, the return of nutrients into the soil and ... thus the viable regeneration of valued plants.
One of these chemicals is used to kill the wild plants that naturally grow under and around trees and agricultural products. A competition arises between these wild plants and the plants upon which the farmer depends for his livelihood. To avoid what can be perceived as excessive costs - in other words, to limit short-term economic costs - the farmer has chosen to remove these wild vegetation species as a whole, and with the excessive aid of toxic chemicals, that then are absorbed into the soil and the water. Although the use of insect icides, herbicides, and fertilizers may improve agricultural production and the quality of the produce, especially in the short run, failing a suitable selection both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of such chemicals is at the risk of polluting the soil, waters and the very produce supplied to consumers.
The causes of the deterioration of soils in Lebanon are multiple: erosion, pollution, and urbanization.
Soil erosion is the removal of surface material by wind or water. Erosion occurs due to the depletion of wooded areas, sharp slopes, and rainfall pattern. It has increased in Lebanon due to the deforestation and incorrect road construction.
Soil pollution is caused by the release of toxic matters, untreated wastewaters, and the uncontrolled use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers in agriculture.
The development of urban agglomeration and inter-urban structures, particularly during the past thirty years, has been at the expense of a considerable agricultural area. The lost land was among the most fertile in Lebanon. One sixth of good agricultural land is already lost, and deterioration continues at an increasing rate. This evolution, has significant negative effects on agricultural production, and will be discussed in further depth.
Consequences of Soil Deterioration
The soil is not only a natural container of all chemical elements but also a receiver for all kinds of waste products. Naturally, the soil's absorption capacity is significantly lost when the soil deteriorates. In addition, soil's ability to provide nutrients for plants is decreased. When soil is lost, the land becomes barren of natural productivity.
Soil nourishes life through the medium of water. All life on earth requires e ssential elements that come from soil. These chemical elements move from soil to plants as ions and molecules in a water solution. Even fish and other aquatic life feed on plants nourished by soil nutrients dissolved in water. Soil and water are thus the bases of plant and animal life and therefore of civilization itself. Soil and water deterioration, both of which are occurring in Lebanon, are consequently a deterioration of the very foundation of civilization.
Current Soil Utilization
Current soil utilization is dominated overwhelmingly by urbanized land (60%), with potential agricultural land second (34%) and wooded areas at a mere 60,000 ha (Table 1).
Land utilization Area (hectares) Percentage of total land area Irrigated cultivated 67,000 6.4 Non-irrigated cultivated 218,000 27 Uncultivated agricultural 75,000 34 Wooded areas 60,000 6 Urbanized land and other 630,000 60 Total 1,050,000 100Table 1: Current land utilization in Lebanon, 1991
The recommended land use by the Lebanese government (National Report on the Environment and Development, 1991) is a 100% increase in agricultural land and a 130% in wooded areas (Table 2).
Land utilization Surface in hectares Percentage of total land area Agriculture 360,000 34 Wooded areas 200,000 20 Improved natural areas 360,000 34 Urbanized and other 130,000 12 Total 1,050,000 100Table 2: Recommended land utilization, 1991
Of all the natural processes, agriculture is one of the main dependents on soil, and thus with the loss of fertile soil, the loss of agriculture will arise.
It is estimated that 34%, that is 360,000 hectares, of the area of the country can be cultivated. The cultivated surface currently is of some 285,000 hectares, of which 67,000 hectares are irrigated.
Nearly half of cultivated lands are on mountain slopes where terracing has allowed the prevention of erosion, but the economic value of the work is subject to question considering the substantial investments it involves and the scarcity of the retained soil.
In 1988, the most important crops and productions were: cereals, potatoes, onions, citrus, apples, viticulture, bananas, sugar beet, olive trees, tobacco, poultry breeding, cattle breeding and milk production, market and floral ga rdening (Table 3).
Agricultural crops and products Production in hectares Olive Trees 34,000 Cereals 13,000 Viticulture 12,000 Citrus 12,000 Potatoes 9,000 Apples 4,000 Cattle breeding, milk production, and floral gardening 1,500 Onions 1,350 Tobacco 1,200 Bananas 1,100 Sugar Beet 50 Total 89,200Table 3: Important agricultural crops and products, 1988
Lebanese agricultural products have valiantly overcome the difficulties caused by the war and maintained, until 1988, a feeble but co nstant growth of their production. However, the Lebanese agricultural sector has enjoyed no major investment in infrastructure for almost 15 years.
The extension of urbanization, in essence, is eating up the agricultural land which is already of a limit ed surface in Lebanon and represents only 12% of the country's area. A large part of these lands is situated in suburbs near towns which have been the bases of urban extension in Tripoli, Jounieh, Beirut and its suburbs, Sidon, Tyre, Zahlé. One sixth of these lands is already lost and the remainder follows at a galloping speed. If strict measures are not taken and applied by the authorities, the agricultural sector would be under the threat of disappearance in Lebanon.
It is no't only agrculture that is threatened in Lebanon; numerou mammals, fish, birds, and wild plants are also threatened with local extinction. There are probably many more species than the short list I will share with you, especially concerning fish. Research is desperately needed, as is constructive, national action.
Primary causes of species loss
Two factors of unequal importance affect the disappearance and endangerment of both the flora and the fauna in Lebanon: loss of habitat and hunting. The first one relates to rapid urbanization, loss of habitat, and habitat alteration. Very often, agricultural work, the use of pesticides, and the drying of swamps, such as the one at Ammiq in the Central Bekaa, made a great part of the fauna leave the region and lead to the ir disappearance. Generally, loss of habitat is the primary and overriding factor for species loss worldwide. In Lebanon, however, such is not the case for it is the savage overhunting that has become the dominant factor in the demise of species. Hunting relates to the individual behavior of the Lebanese person, hunting being here a factor of the first order in the extermination of existing races in Lebanon. The use of explosives and water pollution are additional key factors in the endangerment of the fish in Lebanon.
Significance of species
There are four prime arguments for the preservation of our fellow species One is simply that compassion demands their preservation. Other products of evolution also have a right to existence. The needs and d esires of human beings are not the only basis for ethical decisions. The second point is that other species should be preserved because of their beauty, symbolic value, or intrinsic interest: the argument from esthetics. The third argument is basically economic: preserve species X because Y dollars can be derived from it. Simply, save this specific species because of its direct economic benefit to Homo sapiens. The most important reason, however, depends upon species' indirect benefits. Other spec ies are living components of vital ecological systems (ecosystems) which provide humanity with indispensable free service, services whose substantial disruption would lead inevitably to a collapse of civilization.
Current situation of flora
In Lebanon's small territory of 10,452 Km2, nearly 2600 plant species grow in a spontaneous state. This richness of the Lebanese flora is essentially due to the general climatic conditions of the country, as well as to the multiplicity of micro-climates which favored the formations of numerous endemic species. In addition to the numerous flowers particular to Lebanon, there are species most representative of the Mediterranean basin and Western Asia. A great number of flowers were known for the first time in Lebanon and many bear its name. Rapid urbanization and the degradation of nature are threatening the disappearance of a number of reputed and well-known flowers. Consequently, the protection of certain types is essential, among which are the Royal Osmond, the Montpellier Capillary, the Sofar Iris, and the Pallas Immortal. Due to road construction, housing, and other forms of 'development', numerous species are being lost. In addition, the use of chemicals to remove wild vegetation growing underneath the tre es has lead to the loss of numerous species. Other plants are increasing in their place - primarily weeds and thorn bushes.
Endangered mammal species
The known endangered mammal species in Lebanon are listed in Table 4.
Canis lupus pallipes (Sykes) wolf Herpestes ichneumon (L.) Egyptian mongoose Felis silvestris tristami (Poc.) wild cat Sciurus annomalus syriacus (Eh.) squirrel Lutra lutra (recently went extinct in Lebanon) common otterTable 4: Known endangered mammal species
In addition to the wolf, the Egyptian mongoose, the wild cat, and the squirrel, numerous other mammal species in Lebanon could be endangered, and could have been reduced to less-than-viable populations. For example, bats, of which many species are native to Lebanon, possibly are endangered. In the eloquent words of Merlin Tuttle, the founder of Bat Conservati on International, "caves and mines are winter bedrooms and summer nurseries for bats." Caves in Lebanon are exposed to a wide variety of pollution problems - ranging from devastating water pollution to the controversial nuclear waste problems. Furthermo re, bats are a superstitious, feared animal. On the other hand, bats are essential to keeping in balance night-flying insects, a problem to numerous agricultural crops and products. Individual bats can catch hundreds hourly, and large colonies eat tons nightly, including beetles, moths, and mosquitoes. Among the twelve bat species that are present in Lebanon are the Rousettus aegyptiacus aegyptiacus (Egyptian fruit bat), Rhinopoma microphyllum microphyllum (Greater mouse-tailed bat), Rhinolophus ferrum equinum ferrumequinum (Greater horseshoe bat), Rhinolophus hipposideros minimus (Lesser horseshoe bat), Rhinnolophus euryale judaicus (Mediterranean horseshoe bat), and the Tadarida teniotis rüpelli (European free-tailed bat)
Endangered river fish
The known endangered river fish in Lebanon are listed in Table 5. Once again, it is important to remember that many more species could be in endangered.
Varicorhinus trutta (Hkl.) Varicorhinus trutta (Hkl.) Phoxinellus libani (Lor.)Table 5: Known endangered river fish
Water pollution is a key factor in the endangerment of the fish in Lebanon, and the use of explosives is an additional factor in the demise of sea creatures.
Current situation of birds
Lebanon is a key area for migrating birds, being both rich in number and variety of migrating birds. Millions of soaring birds, especially birds of prey, storks and pelicans, pass through or over the skies of Lebanon, especially during the autumn migration to Africa. Millions of larks migrate through the northern Beka'a valley each year, where they arethen prey to the savage hunting.
Number of Lebanese bird species specific to the Near East and the Caspian Sea 9 Number of bird species existing simultaneously in Lebanon and in Europe 218 Number of bird species nesting in Lebanon 57 Number of birds species which would be nesting in Lebanon 11 Migrating bird species in Springtime only 39 Migrating bird species in Autumn only 17 Migrating bird species in Springtime and Autumn 20 Migrating bird species which leave Lebanon in Autumn and return in Spring 13 Bird species that spend the Winter in Lebanon 36 Bird species that pass at least once a year through Lebanon 121Table 6: Number of bird species dependent on Lebanon
Four sites in Lebanon have been declared as important bird areas by BirdLife International: Palm islands (Jazirat el-nakhl), Ehden Forest, Barouk cedars, and Ammiq Swamp. The first three of these sites have been nominated to become national nature reserves by the United Nations protected areas proposal, which has yet to be fully approved by the Lebanese government. The fourth site, Ammiq Swamp, is the largest remaining freshwater wetland in Lebanon. Ammiq Swamp, a privately owned, yet unrestricted 280 hectare wetland, is located on the western side of the Beka'a valley. The wetland formerly coveredmost of the central and western Beka'a valley north up to Zahle, but has now been reduced toone tenth of its former area. Since 1970, farmers have been draining its margin to convert it to farmland. The water supply also suffers from over-extraction and div ersion for irrigation.
"Most of Lebanon can be considered as a huge 'bottleneck' for migratory raptors and storks, therefore despite the intense shooting that populations of these birds endure in Lebanon, it would be meaningless to define any particular sites for protection in isolation. To conserve these species, wide-scale enforcement of the current hunting regulations is necessary" (Evans, 1994).
Endangered Bird Species
Of the fifteen known endangered bird species in Lebanon, five of them are globally threatened species: the Imperial eagle, the Corncrake, the Syrian serin, the Lesser kestrel, and the Audouin's gull (Table 7). In addition, the Yellow-Legged gull has been declining for a long time: 80 pairs in 1956; 50 birds in 1973; 15 pairs in 1975; and no birds in 1993. The Yellow-Legged gull may be extinct.
Aquila heliaca Imperial eagle Crex crex Corncrake Serinus syriacus Syrian serin Falco naumanni Lesser kestrel Larus audouinii Audouin's gul Alectoris chukar Chukar partridge Gallinago media Great snipe Aythya nyroca Ferruginous duck Botaurus stellaris Great bittern Falco cherrug Saker Aquila pomarina Lesser spotted eagle Larus cachinnacs Yellow-Legged gull Pernis apivorus European honey buzzard Gyps fulvus Eurasian griffon vulture Accipter brevipes Levant sparrowhawkTable 7: Known endangered bird species
Conclusion: Future Vision
As nature is progressively impoverished, its ability to provide a moderate climate, cleanse air and water, recycle wastes, protect crops from pests, replenish soils... will be increasingly degraded. It is crucial, fundamental to our survival, that an intellectual revolution arise with regards to our role in nature. As the great environmentalist, scientist, and writer Rachel Carson said, "we still talk in terms of conquest. We still haven't become mature enough to think in terms of ourselves as a tiny part of a vast and incredible universe."
More specifically, three key sectors need to strengthened and altered. First, environmental education needs to be integrated into the education sys tem in Lebanon, from kindergarten through college. The fight for the protection of the environment begins with education. The new generation should be raised on the principles of respect and wonder for nature.
Education goes hand in hand with information, and thus research is critical. Research into pollution issues, agriculture, forestry, and marine biology are all necessary, as are the installation of permanent study plots and the enhancement of our data base.
Based upon the research, and based upon the current information, the institutional policies need to be reworked. Policies, and thus politicians and leaders, need to take the environment seriously, and laws should then be based on the integrity of the ecosystem. A holistic approach to the ecosystem is necessary in the formation of laws and policies. Ecological integrity, economic stability, and social integrity should all be considered in decision making and in the formation of laws and policies. Once educated laws are produced, they need to be enforced consistently.
To protect the deteriorating environment in Lebanon, one should help promote a general awakening in the importance of the environment in Lebanese society. It is not simply a matter of emitting some ideas but truly making people understand, on scientific grounds, that in the absence of a concrete policy in matters of the environment, the future of the natural and socio-economic heritage of Lebanon will be compromised; the future of the coming generations will be sacrificed.
Evans, M. I. (1994) Important Bird Areas in the Middle East. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 2. BirdLife International.
National Report on the Environment and Development in Lebanon. (1991) Ministry of State for the Environment. Republic of Lebanon.
Tohmé, Georges and Henriette. (1985) Ecology of Lebanon: Facts and Examples. Lebanese University. Natural Science Section 17. [published in Arabic
Tohmé, Georges and Henriette. (1986) The Birds of Lebanon. Lebanese University . Natural Science Section 17. [published in Arabic]
Ph.D. student in Forestry, North Carolina State University.
7309 Haymarket Lane, Raleigh NC 27615,USA
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