Urban Archeology in Beirut: a preliminary report
Hans H. Curvers and Barbara Stuart,
IPP, University of Amsterdam.
This report is written to allow for a synthesis and a coherent report on the archeological investigations in the Beirut Central District to be offered to the scholars invited to become a Member of the International Scientifique Committee.
Beirut, the present capital of Lebanon, was an important port town which flourished under the rule of several foreign empires. The most ancient reference to the site was found in the diplomatic records of the 14th century B.C. Along with the ports of Tyre and Sidon to its south and Byblos to its north, Beirut exchanged numerous commodities with other areas along the Mediterranean coasts.
Ancient Berytus is today largely covered with modern urban constructions. Here and there walls of ancient structures have become an integrated part of monumental buildings of ancient date. A major reason for the lack of coherent data available on the archeology of Beirut is the urban history of continuous reconstruction without systematic archeological investigations. An exception is the work of Jean Lauffray (1944-5), who tried to compile an architectural history and synthesis of all evidence collected up till 1944.
Recently the situation in Beirut has changed dramatically. Solidère, the developer, enhances and allows, in agreement with the Lebanese Law on Antiquities, major archeological investigations. The DGA, responsible for the observance of the law, cooperates with Solidère to make this project one of the largest projects of urban archeology in the world. A distinct advantage that Beirut holds over other major ports is that the whole ancient city, its suburbs and cemeteries are available for study.
The long history of Beirut provides another significant focus for the research. The processes of urban foundation, growth, decline and abandonment across a time span of more than 8,000 years of human history, have all left traces in the archaeological record. In addition, the city has been visited, excavated and commented on since the first millennium B.C. Through intensive methods of excavation all participants in the project will be able to examine the entire c. 110 hectare townscape on a field-by-field basis, collecting information on chronology and on the use of different areas. To date we have excavated approximately the first 0.2 ha of this vast urban area at the site designated BEY 008.
The excavations at BEY 008 are part of a long-term program of research begun in 1993 and being coordinated by the Direction Général des Antiquités of Lebanon, UNESCO (emergency operations, Paris), and Solidère. The Lebanese-Dutch project is sponsored by the Institute for Pre- and Protohistory (IPP) of the University of Amsterdam, the DGA and Solidère. The Lebanese contribution consists of the cooperation with Lebanese students and dr. Hareth Boustani, archeological advisor of Solidère and teacher at the University of Lebanon. The Dutch directors are Hans H. Curvers and Barbara Stuart of the IPP of the University of Amsterdam which fully supports the project.
BEY 008 is located in the center of modern Beirut in an area in which development is imminent in 1995. Dr. Philippe Marquis, coordinator of the project, suggested to start the operations in an area bordered by Tarablus Street, Suk Jamil and Patriarch Hoayek Street, in order to investigate the location of the Medieval city wall and its relation with earlier remains.
Future plans call for a continuation of the diachronic survey of the city and its hinterland in order to understand its agricultural base, its relation to its environment and its patterns of settlement from the earliest phases of human occupation until the present day. Therefore, the project, which is a collaborative interdisciplinary research effort involving geologists, geophysicists, palaeobotanists, palaeosteologists, and archaeologists specializing in the processing of graphics and data, has a commitment to conduct rescue excavations on sites selected for development. In 1994 the IPP contribution to the project consisted of the excavation of a late Roman/Byzantine urban villa, a part of the Medieval city wall, and the foundations of the 19th century urban buildings where development was imminent.
The excavations at the site BEY 008 have revealed evidence that luxury goods such as marble tiles and other architectural ornaments were not only used in late Roman-Byzantine amenities like public buildings and the bathing complex, but also in the dwellings of the officials who were associated with the public and monumental buildings in the center of the city (cf. Lauffray 1944-5).
The local economy of Berytus was probably based on animal husbandry, fishing, the cultivation of olives and cereals, weaving and pottery production, among others. Specialists in archeozoology and paleobotany will join the team in 1995 to obtain more information on the economic conditions of ancient Berytus.
Archaeological remains throughout the exposed contexts in BEY 008 have provided insight into the production of goods intended for local use and consumption. Slag, a by- product of metal production, indicates that metalworking took place at Berytus. Mosaics attest to a thriving local construction business. Although no cloth survives from our excavations at BEY 008, the high quantity of Murex shells and a basin for dying textiles provide evidence of local textile production.
The exposed archeological remains belong to three main periods:
- Period I: Hellenistic to Byzantine (300 B.C.- 600 A.D.);
- Period II: late Medieval (1000 - 1700 A.D.); and
- Period III: the great reconstruction of the Suk area in the 19th century (ca. 1840 AD).
In the area bordered by Tarablus Street, Suk Jamil and Patriarch Hoayek Street a building with seven rooms in its western wing was exposed over a length of 34 m. West of this large building several semi-subterranean structures were found. The relation between the semi-subterranean houses and the larger building is not yet completely clear. Stratigraphically the semi-subterranean houses reveal at least two phases of occupation. The earliest phase indicates that prior to the occupation of the structures, quarrying for blocks resulted in several rectangular structures in the limestone bedrock. These structures were shaped into semi-subterranean dwellings of one to three rooms. The figurine of a dancing person with the hands of another dancing partner indicated on the back was found in the fill of a one-room semi-subterranean structure (Fig. 1:e-f). In the fill more fragments of arms were found, which may indicate that the figurine and the arms are the remainder of a ritual. The pottery in the semi-subterranean structures contains mainly Hellenistic ceramics. The Phoenician Period is represented here by residual finds such as female figurines (Fig. 1 c-d) and some glass fragments. In the second phase of occupation new rooms were built over the semi-subterranean structures. Installations like ovens and basins were found inside these rooms. This second phase can be associated with the larger building referred to above. In this area the more domestic activities took place.
The more representative parts of the building were found below and east of the modern Suk Jamil. Immediately below the modern street three rooms with mosaic floors were found. The most southern room was cut into bedrock, this room and two others had a mosaic floor of white tesserae. The room due north of the room cut into bedrock had a width of at least 7.25 m. This width could be deduced from the presence of a floor of white tesserae, remains of which were retrieved east of the modern sewer of the Suk Jamil. In the fill of this room the capital of a column was found. The capital was decorated with acanthi in a style characteristic for the Late Roman period. A third room with white mosaic floor gave way to a series of four rooms in the northwest corner of the building. A flight of two or three steps connected the southern rooms and the four northern rooms. Few remains of the pavement of the steps were preserved.
In one of the rooms of the northwest corner of the building an entrance was exposed, the doorway had a curb to prevent the water from entering this part of the building.
Below the modern remains west of the Suk Jamil the central hall of the large building was found. Although it was disturbed by building activities of period II and III, we were able to expose fragments of a mosaic floor belonging to this hall, which must have had a length of 19 m. The mosaic consists of a central rectangle, of which the northeastern corner was found, and its borders. The exposed remains indicate that the outer part of this central rectangle contained circular motives. North and south of the central rectangle, which may have covered an area of 6 x 4 m, the border was exposed. This border had geometric decorations: lozenges of yellow and red tesserae, and swastikas in red (Fig. 2). These geometric motives were located within large lozenges build up by crossing lines of red squares. In the south this band of geometric patterns was interrupted for a text. Three lines with words in Greek capitals were exposed, the second line says TAOONAIPHOINIKOS...
North of the geometric border a path with occasional geometric designs was exposed, this path was bordered by a band of floral motives. The northern edge of the large hall had a band of circular designs in which yellow, red and dark blue tesserae were used. One circle contained the text ..ELIOIS (Fig. 2).
East of the central hall the remains of a heavily plastered room (3.5 x 2 m) were found. The corners of the room and the angle between the floor and the wall faces were provided with an oblique plastered surface. The presence of several conduits inside the building suggest that this room was in use as a bath. The rooms south of the bath were destroyed by later building activities. The presence of several columns, a base and a large stone basin suggest that an open area surrounded by a colonnade existed here. North of the bathroom the find of an octagonal marble basin with relief decoration and outlet furthermore stresses the wealth of the house (Fig. 4). The conduits or drains of the house or urban villa were connected to a central sewer of a street. On the other side of the street a wall of hewn blocks indicates the presence of yet another urban villa. One of the rooms in this building was provided with a mosaic of rather fine tesserae (white, yellow, and red). The exposure of the rooms in this building had to be postponed to the next season.
In the northern part of the excavation we exposed the glacis of the late Medieval (11th century AD) urban fortification of Beirut. A ditch was cut into bedrock, the depth of the cut was 2.3 m (Fig. 3). On top of the sloping face of bedrock, special blocks were laid to continue the steep slope (70 - 72 &dgr;) of the cut.
On the southern end of the excavated area, twenty meters south of the first exposure of the ditch and glacis, we started a sounding to check the presence of the fortification. Here the cut into bedrock was limited to a height of 40 cm. In this area we exposed two or three courses of hewn blocks. These blocks were used to create the glacis. The mortar lines of the blocks were hidden behind a lime plaster. The angle of this glacis is also 70 - 72 .
In a sharp angle with the glacis we exposed a 70 cm wide canal, cut into bedrock. The sharp angle suggests that the canal served as a sewer which at some point had an outlet into the ditch. Unfortunately, the confluence of sewer and ditch was located in the area which was destroyed by the construction of a modern cellar.
The remains of the extended reconstruction of the Suk area in the 19th century consist of arched foundations (Fig 3: B-C). These foundations were reused for the construction of the 20th century Suk buildings. The method of construction and the depth of the foundations in this area depended on the presence of the period II ditch (cf. Fig. 3). The builders decided to fill in the ditch with stones of which the heavy ones may originate from the period II city wall. The eastern base of the arches of foundation B were built on top of the period II glacis. The western base of the arches of foundation B, however, were build on the fill accumulated on the bottom of the ditch. In the excavated northern area this resulted in a foundation of a depth of ca. 3 m. A double foundation (C) perpendicularly to foundation B was constructed to compensate for a location over the edge of the old ditch. The inner foundation (Fig. 3:C) was built into the ditch to give support to outer foundation (Fig. 3:C). In this auxiliary foundation no arches were found. We infer the location of the edge of the period II ditch from the fact that Period I remains were found due west of the outer period III foundation.
The 1995 excavations at BEY 008 in the Suk area have concentrated on the exposure of the remains of the second urban villa located on the east side of the street exposed in 1994. The remains were heavily disturbed by recent and sub-recent building activities in the area. The northern part of the street with outlets of the previously exposed bathroom into the central sewer were uncovered. The urban villa opposite the urban villa with the `Phoiniko' mosaic also contained a room with a mosaic floor, the building was provided with several small rooms. In one of the room an oven made of rectangular tiles was built. In the neighboring rooms more oven remains were exposed, they appeared to be of the beehive type. In the disturbed remains a bathroom could be located. In the fill the remians of a capital in corinthean style was found. The building dates to Period II.
On April 3, 1995 the IPP-UVA team took over responsibility for the archeological investigations associated with the activities on the infrastructure of the BCD. Due to the hollidays of Dr. Ibrahim Kouwatly the operations in BEY 014 (Burj), BEY 015 (George Haddad South), BEY 018 (Av. des Francais and Rue Tarablous), BEY 019-021 (Foch/Municipality area) were taken over.
In 1994 the team of the IPP-UVA participate in the Salavage project situated in the Souk area of BCD. After this first acquaintance with the archeological propects and needs in Beirut a long-term stategy was defined in Amsterdam. The first season of archeological investigations had learned that Beirut today is the result of numerous building campaigns occurring over millennia. The history of this urban context has to be investigated and respected before new intrusive activities disturb the cultural heritage still present. The intention of this archeological plan is to create a dialogue between contemporary plans for the development and reconstruction of Beirut and the use of space in the past.
The activities scheduled by the IPP-UVA team hope to enhance this dialogue. The form of the dialogue should rather be cyclic than linear. This will allow an approach in which both archeologists and urban planners in the reconstruction of Beirut continuously regard their activities as part of one project. Instead of a linear approach in which archeology is a preliminary phase in the process of reconstruction, the activities of the archeological team of the Instituut voor Pre- and Protohistorische Archeologie (IPP) of the University of Amsterdam aim at the collection of data which can be processed and used to develop ancient concepts of urban life in Beirut. In detail the archeological research will provide data to evaluate the interest of the excavated remains to the public and the academic field of archeologists. The urban planners can evaluate these archeological results in the perspective of their concepts of the future use of space in Beirut.
The perspective explained above is an operationalization of the concepts along which the company responsible for the reconstruction and development of Beirut has organized all its activities.
In general the top levels of the deposits selected for excavation will be removed with the help of mechanical equipment (drag-line and loader). The cleaning of the areas and the preliminary excavation of areas will be done by workers without immediate supervsion. After this initial cleaning the Lebanese students assisted by Syrian workers will excavate more delicately the archeologically reliable contexts. The evaluation of the status of the contexts is the responsibility of the field archeologists in the team. The students will be involved in the evaluation of the exposed contexts. Finally, the students will draw the exposed remains. The plans will be on a scale 1:20. The finds retrieved from the excavated contexts will be processed: sorted, counted, weighed, registered, drawn and photographed in the laboratory which the developer (Solidère) has build for this project. Inventories will be made available to the Directorate of Antiquities.
In addition to the methods and procedures of 1994 we will have more specialists in the field to cooperate with the participating students in the processing of pottery, small finds, zoological remains and glass finds. To allow for an advanced analysis of finds and architecture we suggest to have a specialist in processing graphics and data in archeology for two months in the field. To allow for a architectural evaluation of excavated contexts and high quality photography of objects an architect/photographer will spend one month in the field.
Proposed modulated participation of IPP specialists
In the proposal of 1995 activities specialists will be added to the `basic' team responsible for the excavation. The core staff will consist of five persons: Hans H. Curvers, Barbara Stuart, Inge Rossmeisl and two field-acrheologists. The specialists have all been scheduled in a period in which their assistance is of most help to the project. Their presence can be considered as separate modules through which the harmony of the archeological project can be refined.
The presence of the specialists adjusts the speed with which the concepts about the ancient use of urban space are obtained. Their presence in the field is organized in modules that can enhance the cyclic decision-making between archeologists and developers. The basic fieldwork (module 1) can be executed independently from the contributions expected from the specialists.
The presence of specialists is scheduled for the period July-September. This assistance is scheduled to allow for catching up with the processing of the material expected from the first phase of the excavation period in 1995.
4.1 Background of the 1995 activities
The systematic excavation of the Old Suk area will be influenced by the decision of the developer to start the actual developmental activities in January 1995. The director of the archeological team and the developers, therefore, have to define high-priority areas where infrastructural activities demand archeological investigations.
On the basis of the results obtained from these high-priority soundings, decisions about the archeological value of the investigated areas will be made. In the period in which low-priority areas are scheduled to be excavated the archeologist will decide which areas fit best into the goals of the archeological research. The archeologists will be able to make a plan of the Suk area on which the archeological potentials are indicated.
The plan for the 1995 excavations includes several activities that do not have a clear-cut structure yet:
These four activities all contribute to the main goal of the project to collect data on the ancient use of space in the city of Beirut, and to obtain a better view on the archeological value of area to be developed. These activities allow for the proposed cyclic approach or dialogue between archeology and urban planning. On the basis of the plan on which the archeological values are indicated excavator and designer can both predict and control the invisible and hidden aspects of the remains of the past.
The 1995 operation will start in February 1995 and last till the end of November. In case no area for short-term development are available, the activities in BEY 008 will be resumed. According to the announcement of the developer in August 1994 we expect to deal with activities referred to in 1. and 2. These activities will result in data to be used to undertake the activities referred to in 3.
In addition to the activities similar to 1994 we will concentrate in 1995 on the processing and combination of plans and finds. The activities throughout the area under development will provide data dispersed at first sight. The compilation of overall plans with archeological data will allow to discuss the potentials of the results in wider perspective with all archeologists involved in the project. Participation of urban planners can help to construct ideas about the lay-out of the city in the past.
Digitizing of the 1:20 drawings in the field are the starting point for the 1995 method. Another aspect will be the computerized storage of the finds. Finally both datasets will allow for mapping the archeological value of the excavated areas.
The 1995 activities of module 1 are similar to our work in 1994, but will be more balanced in an equal staffing of the crew in the field and the laboratory. The additional activities are subdivided into modules that can be introduced into the complete scheme of the project. In case of absence of the specialist or other unforeseen troubles the activities proposed and described as module 2-4 do not interfere with the `basic' fieldwork referred to in module 1 (cf. 1.1; 2.3).
4.3 Module 1
The activities in this phase will be continued throughout the presence of the archeological team of the IPP in Beirut. In February, March and April all means will be used to collect material in the field. The activities in the laboratory will be limited to the preliminary sorting of finds and storage.
In the field the main aim is to collect data from reliable contexts and to register architectural remains on 1:20 plans. The drawings will be digitized in the laboratory.
In May and June agreements in the past cause the involvement of the members of the team in a our project in Syria. Some of the Lebanese students will have the opportunity to participate in this fieldwork. In addition to the structure of the 1994 team we have added more experienced archeologists to the team to allow for a better processing of both architectural features and finds.
4.4 Module 2
In the period July-August the project will be continued along two lines. The activities of module 1 will be continued. To gain more results we will spend more time on the processing of data in the laboratory. Due to climatic conditions the fieldwork will suffer from high temperatures. Therefore, the conditions of the laboratory will allow for a more efficient investment of human energy. In this period several specialists will help in the processing and registering of finds. The visiting specialists will work together with one or more Lebanese students.
In this period Nel Loosbroek and Marga Schoenmaker will assist the find processing in the laboratory. Their assistence will allow for a more efficient processing of the backlog of finds. Together with Inge Rossmeisl they will be responsible for the processing of finds, wherever a bottle-neck in the processing has developed they will be able to spend their energy on this problem.
Archeozoological analysis of the collected bones of the archeological teams in Beirut will be supervised by Chiara Cavallo. Her expertise on Near Eastern and Mediterranean zoological remains from excavations warrants a quantified and stratigraphically based interpretation of the material.
Glass finds will be processed by Yvette Sablerolles. She will cooperate with students in the drawing and description of the finds. She will work on a report on the glass finds in the field. Her report will be part of the first interim report on the IPP-team's activities in Beirut.
Klaas van Harten will visit Beirut in the second period of the 1995 activities. In this period we assume that the quantity of delicate objects collected throughout the season has accumulated to a number which allows Klaas to spend a month as photographer in the field. As a professional architect his presence will allow for evaluation of exposed architecture in the field and he will contribute to the discussion of interpretation of the excavated remains.
4.5 Module 3
Willem Beekx will visit Beirut in October and November. In this period he will help to produce detailed plans on which relations between prepared data files and plans can be made. Before his arriva; we hope to be able with the use of the data to comile distribution maps and overview to contribute to the dialogue with the developers and colleague archeologists. For this reason he will give guidelines to process data in the months before his arrival in the field.
4.6 Module 4
Towards the end of the 1995 activities we hope to have at our disposal large sets of data on architecture and finds from the field. Participants and specialists have agreed to take responsibilities for the publication of a part of the data. They will present a report for publication according to their expertise. Their reports will be collected and edited for a collective interim report on The 1994 and 1995 excavations in Beirut of the University of Lebanon and the University of Amsterdam.
5.1 Lebanese interest
The law prescribes archeological investigations for the old city of Beirut, whenever a major reconstruction is planned. The activities proposed in this plan will be discussed and executed in accordance with the approval of the Direction Général des Antiquités (DGA). The results of the excavations and the development of a Plan with the archeological potentials indicated will allow the DGA to develop a general policy towards the research of the area to be developed.
The experiences of archeologists, officials of the DGA and the students of the Lebanese University will create a platform of knowledge that can be applied later to other regions in the country. It is through the invitations of UNESCO and the actual support of Solidère that new techniques for excavation and the processing of finds have been introduced and applied to the excavations in 1993-4. More practice in the field is necessary to develop a standard routine and introduce all techniques into the ranks of the DGA and its future officials, the students in archeology.
In 1994 cooperation between foreign excavation teams started during the actual fieldwork. The DGA and Solidère stimulated this cooperation. The experience of the University of Amsterdam team have resulted in mutual enthusiasm about the cooperation between eleven Lebanese students and the Dutch members of the team. We hope the developer and the DGA will provide similar conditions in 1995 to continue the cooperation of specialists and another ten Lebanese students (or more). In the financial scheme the number of participating students has been limited to ten.
5.2 Interest of the University of Lebanon
Due to the civil war the archeological education of the University of Lebanon has been limited to the theoretical aspects of excavation and the material and historic perspectives. Since 1993 ample opportunities to spend more time on the practical perspective of the archeological education are provided by the archeological investigations of the ancient city of Beirut. The team of the IPP of the University of Amsterdam will continue to allow students of the Lebanese University to participate in the excavations. In 1995 we hope to extend this participation a little further into the field of data-processing and analysis, even the publication of finds.
5.3 Interest of the University of Amsterdam
Education of students in the Instituut voor Pre- en Protohistorie (IPP) of the University of Amsterdam aims at two types of archeologists. The first type is able to excavate and report on fieldwork, the second type of archeologist is able to develop concepts about the organization and evaluation of archeological finds and monuments. The latter archeologist has to take into consideration plans of other institutions regarding the use of rural or urban space. This archeologist has to decide whether actual excavation is necessary or not.
The reconstruction and development of Beirut by Solidère fits into the field of expertise the institute has developed in the Netherlands. Therefore the participation of an archeological team which tries to add to the dialogue between developers and archeologists will add a new dimension and case to the resources from which the education of archeological managers can draw its information. Experience in the Netherlands can be used for comparisons between projects and solutions for problems may benefit decision-making in both situation.
Page No. 1 23/04/95 Bey 008 finds CATALOG NO 001 ARCHON 010012001 DATE 180794 CLASS Human figurine MATERIAL baked clay PRESERVATION torso only DESCRIPTION Dressed in toga DIMENSIONS 6.7 x 4.3 x 1.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG No. 002 ARCHON 008018 DATE 180794 CLASS discarded MATERIAL bone vertebra PRESERVATION complete DESCRIPT DIMENSIONS 2.3 x 2.4 x 1.9 CONTEXT fill PERIOD ? Page No. 2 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 003 ARCHON 002008001 DATE 190794 CLASS Human figurine MATERIAL baked clay PRESERVATION torso only DESCRIPT DIMENSIONS 6.7 x 3.6 x 1.5 cm CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 004 ARCHON 000006001 DATE 190794 CLASS Handle (cylind) MATERIAL bone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT At one cut face traces of sawing were observed DIMENSIONS 4.6 x 2.3 x 1.5 x 0.9 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 3 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 005 ARCHON 000006001 DATE 190794 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Lump of plaster is max. 4.1 cm thick, including the tesserae. Of the 16 tesserae 1 are white and three red. No clear decorative pattern to be reconstructed. DIMENSIONS 5.5 x 4.1 x 0.4 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 006 ARCHON 000004008 DATE 270794 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Chunk of floor with 43 tesserae. The tesseare are arranged according to color in bands: red band bordered by dark grey band on both sides. The max. thickness of the lump is 4.4 cm. DIMENSIONS 8.6 x 6.8 x 0.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 4 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 007 ARCHON 008004001 DATE 150794 CLASS Pendant (?) MATERIAL Bone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Front side pierced only. The use of the object as a pendant is unclear. DIMENSIONS 2.5 x 1.2 x 1.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 008 ARCHON 006030003 DATE 290794 CLASS Female figurine MATERIAL Baked clay PRESERVATION torso only DESCRIPT Head broken off, but traces of long hair visible on both sides of the neck. One arm broken off, the other partly broken off at end. Two breasts indicated, one slightly chipped. On the back of the preserved arm shallow grooves, the rverse of the figurine is flat and irregular at the edges. The figurine is plano- convex in section. DIMENSIONS 7.2 x 7.3 x 2.8 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD IA Page No. 5 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 009 ARCHON 002030001 DATE 010894 CLASS Female figurine MATERIAL Baked clay PRESERVATION torso only DESCRIPT Pregnant female with prominent protruding belly, no breasts indicated. Both arms stretched out, but broken off. Reverse surface slightly concave. Voids in the armhole region suggest that the arms were attached to the torso during manufacture. DIMENSIONS 7.9 x 6.4 x 2.5 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD IA CATALOG NO 010 ARCHON 008010005 DATE 290794 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Edge of larger unknown fragment, ridge and groove. DIMENSIONS 13.6 x 7.2 x 3.3 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 6 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 011 ARCHON area 004 DATE 030894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Three fragemnt with colored tesserae (grey, red, pink, yellow). DIMENSIONS 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 012 ARCHON 002002003 DATE 050894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Three bands of tesserae on this small fragment: white, blue grey, brown grey. DIMENSIONS 3.8 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 7 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 013 ARCHON 004016001 DATE 210794 CLASS Knucklebone MATERIAL Bone PRESERVATION complete DESCRIPT Polsihed surface, through use ? DIMENSIONS 3.3 x 2.1 x 1.4 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 014 ARCHON area 001 DATE 020894 CLASS Whorl MATERIAL Stone PRESERVATION complete DESCRIPT Plano- convex disk, with central perforation. Concentric incision. DIMENSIONS 2.7 x 2.6 x 0.6 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Med Page No. 8 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 016 ARCHON 002002002 DATE 060894 CLASS Tool sharpener MATERIAL Stone PRESERVATION complete DESCRIPT Irregular stone with deep grooves. The grooves may be the result of sharpening cutting tools. DIMENSIONS 14.4 x 10.0 x 5.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 015 ARCHON Liana 002 DATE 110894 CLASS Human figurine MATERIAL Baked clay PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Wide flowing skirt, around the waist are the arms of a second figure, they are broken off and of a slightly lighter reddish clay than the figurine. Two parts of arms were found close to the figurine: an arm of bright red clay and a bigger simplified model of an arm. the end of one of the arms the potter pressed with his or her fingers. DIMENSIONS 5.4 x 5.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD IA Page No. 9 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 017 ARCHON Elie 001 DATE 100894 CLASS Horn ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT The exterior of the horn was probably white in antiquity, the structure of the marble is very fine. DIMENSIONS 22.0 x 0.0 x 5.0 x 4.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 018 ARCHON area 002 DATE 170894 CLASS Bracelet MATERIAL Bronze PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Circular in section, the inside surface is slightly flattened. DIMENSIONS 5.6 x 0.0 x 0.7 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Page No. 10 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 019 ARCHON 018026002 DATE 250894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Fragment with white tesserae, a red and a black stone. DIMENSIONS 7.7 x 3.9 x 2.1 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 020 ARCHON 044010003 DATE 250894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT All tesserae red. DIMENSIONS 4.3 x 3.7 x 1.3 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 11 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 021 ARCHON 008026003 DATE 090894 CLASS Ornaments MATERIAL Gypsum PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT 1. Rod, rectangular in section, one end broken in straight surface, other end obliquely broken. 2. Circular ring, broken, rectangular in section. DIMENSIONS 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 022 ARCHON 008024009 DATE 100894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Gypsum PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Circular ring, broken, rectangular in section. DIMENSIONS 5.0 x 0.0 x 0.8 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 12 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 023 ARCHON 042006 DATE 250894 CLASS Basin MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Shallow basing with horizontal block rim. DIMENSIONS 7.8 x 8.5 x 4.6 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 024 ARCHON 042012001 DATE 180894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Fragment with white, red and black tesserae, Red tesserae appear to be organized in two diagonal bands. DIMENSIONS 6.3 x 5.1 x 2.7 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 13 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 025 ARCHON 028020001 DATE 240894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Ornament with acanthus leaf in relief. DIMENSIONS 14.8 x 9.3 x 4.1 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 026 ARCHON area 008 DATE 110894 CLASS Tile MATERIAL Baked clay PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Cross stamped into surface. DIMENSIONS 10.9 x 7.9 x 2.4 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Med Page No. 14 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 027 ARCHON 012020006 DATE 220894 CLASS Loomweight MATERIAL Baked clay PRESERVATION complete DESCRIPT Brick red disk with two perforations. DIMENSIONS 6.9 x 6.4 x 2.1 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Hel CATALOG NO 028 ARCHON area 008 DATE 110894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT The surface of the volute is smoothed and ca. 3 mm rising above the surface, the surface hasmany small depressions, posible the marks of chiseling. The back of the ornament is flat. DIMENSIONS 10.0 x 5.7 x 2.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 15 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 029 ARCHON area 016 DATE 180894 CLASS Ideophone (?) MATERIAL Bone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Bone fragment of which the edge is provided with incisions. DIMENSIONS 5.9 x 4.7 x 1.3 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 030 ARCHON 044016001 DATE 290894 CLASS Pierced stone MATERIAL Stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Rectangular rim of an unknown object, perforated obliquely (ck) DIMENSIONS 4.6 x 4.4 x 1.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Page No. 16 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 031 ARCHON 042006 DATE 250894 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Cup with handle and provided with incisions. The bottom i flat, the profile is vertical and straight, the rim plain, the handle is broken but remians of a perforatin are visible. The decorative pattern consists of a wide hatching resulting in medium lozenges filled with circular depression. DIMENSIONS 6.4 x 4.5 x 4.4 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 032 ARCHON 016002002 DATE 250894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT White gray marble fragment with depression up to 1 cm deep, traces of plaster or mortar are attached to the surface. DIMENSIONS 8.6 x 8.3 x 2.8 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 17 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 033 ARCHON 008024007 DATE 090894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Tesserae in black, red and white. DIMENSIONS 5.3 x 4.1 x 2.5 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 034 ARCHON 008024007 DATE 090894 CLASS Ornaments MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragments DESCRIPT 1. Yellow white marble rectangular fragment, two sides broken, two wide shallow grooves. 2. Moon- shaped white marble fragment (part of disk), slightly chipped. Thickness 1.3 cm. 3. White marble fragment (rod), top flat, bottom rough, both ends broken. Thickness 0.6 cm. 4. White marble fragment (rod), top flat, bottom rough, one end broken. Thickness 0.6 cm. 5. White marble fragment (rod), top flat, bottom rough, sides flat, both ends broken. Thickness 0.4 cm. 6- 9. Four fragments of black marble (rods), flat sides and top, bottom rough, both ends broken. Thickness varying 0.8-0.9 cm. DIMENSIONS 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 18 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 035 ARCHON 042006 DATE 250894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Hexagonal fragment of grey marble, floor ornament, sides slightly damaged near bottom, flat top and bottom, bottom- line sloping inwards. DIMENSIONS 14.7 x 13.1 x 4.8 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 036 ARCHON 012004006 DATE 240894 CLASS Floor fragment MATERIAL Plaster/stone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Hexagonal fragment of grey marble, floor ornament, sides slightly damaged near bottom, flat top and bottom, bottom- line sloping inwards. DIMENSIONS 7.2 x 5.6 x 4.1 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 19 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 037 ARCHON area 021 DATE 290894 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Limestone PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 7.0 x 5.6 x 2.7 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 038 ARCHON 008002004 DATE 120894 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Basalt PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Page No. 20 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 039 ARCHON 040008001 DATE 150894 CLASS Ornament MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 24.2 x 23.9 x 3.9 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD CATALOG NO 040 ARCHON 040014006 DATE 010994 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom Page No. 21 23/04/95 CATALOG NO 041 ARCHON 060006 DATE 010994 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 14.7 x 13.1 x 3.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD Rom CATALOG NO 041 ARCHON 060006 DATE 010994 CLASS Vessel MATERIAL Marble PRESERVATION fragment DESCRIPT Plain rim bowl with ring base, bottom curving, straight vertical profile. Rim shows burnt traces and charred material sticking to it, fine grained limestone. DIMENSIONS 14.7 x 13.1 x 3.0 x 0.0 CONTEXT fill PERIOD RomReferences
1944-5 Forum et monuments de Béryte, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 7: 12-80.
An excavation is always a cooperative endeavor. Therefore, all people listed below represent their institutions which have contributed to our results in 1994 and 1995. The IPP team was invited through Georges Zouain (UNESCO) and Karel van Oostrom (Royal Dutch Embassy, Damascus). The general director of the department of Antiquities in Lebanon, Camille Asmar, confirmed the invitation with the permit to excavate a selected part of the Suk area in Beirut. Solidère, represented by its archeological advisor Hareth Boustani, covered all local expenses of the team and encouraged the activities in the field throughout the season. Philippe Marquis, coordinator of the project, solved many problems and was always ready to discuss every aspect of the work. Furthermore, a large group of students of the University of Lebanon participated in the project and they became its backbone. Throughout our activities in the BCD Syrian workers assisted these students. The highly skilled drivers of Sidany in their draglines and loaders developed a sixth sense for delicate finds. Yvette Sablerolles and Inge Rossmeisl contributed to the success of the first season in Beirut. Last but not least soldiers of the Lebanes Army participated in the excavations at BEY 008 in 1994.
List of Figures (Not included with this document.)
Human Figurines: a-b Individuals dressed in toga; c-d, Phoenician female figurines: long hair (c) and pregnant (d); e-f. Dancing figurine (f) with hands on the back and loose arms (e) found in the same context (scale 1:4).
Schematic section through the Period II city wall and ditch, and the period III foundations: A. cut into bedrock, B. Arched east-west foundation, C. double north-south foundation; D. blocks used to build the glacis on top of bedrock.
Schematic details of the Period I mosaic in the central hall of a large building (scale 1:40).
Marble octagonal basin with outlet, found inside the large period I building.
Members of the IPP-UVA team
Hans H. Curvers (HHC) and Barbara Stuart (BS) will direct the activities in the field and the laboratory. In contrast to the situation in 1994 they will extend their supervision from fieldwork to the processing of the data: digitizing of overall plans, drawing of objects, description of pottery, stratigraphic analysis.
Several experienced field-archeologists -- Olivier Nieuwenhuyse, Brand Klooster and Evelien van der Steen, will be added to the staff of the team in order to supervise the work in the field, this will allow for a processing of both field data and finds in an appropriate way.
The zoological material will be analyzed by Chiara Cavallo, a specialist of the section Ecological Archeology of the IPP. Similarly the glass finds will be processed by Yvette Sablerolles who was a member of the 1994 team.
The processing of the selected diagnostic potsherds will be supervised by two graduate students (Lidewijde de Jong and Lione du Pied) from the department of Classical Archeology of the University of Amsterdam.
Willem Beekx, a specialist in the processing of graphics and data, will assist in making programs and relations between the already digitized plans and composed data-files. To allow for a most practical contribution his presence is scheduled in the period September-October. To reach this goal the entering of data on ceramics, bones, glass and other artifacts into the computer will be a major task througout the month of fieldwork. Similarly the 1:20 plans will have to be digitized to allow the compilation of archeological plans and data.
Equipment in use
Measuring tapes Daily drawings of the exposed surfaces are made by the Lebanese students, their reference lines are provided with measuring tapes.