Lebanon's First Postwar Parliamentary Election, 1992: An Imposed Choice

Farid el Khazen


Part One

Pre-and Post-Ta'if Politics: What has Changed?
Reform as Political Bargaining Before and After Ta'if
Prior to Election Day
The Making ot the Electoral Law
Electoral Constituencies: Last-Minute Bargains
The Political and Sectarian Implications of Uneven Multi-Member Constituencies
The 1992 Electoral Law: Who Elects Whom?
The Timing of the Elections: An Enigma!

Part Two

The Electoral Process and the New Parliament
Composing the Electoral Lists: Choosing 'Winners'
Limited Competitiveness and Unopposed Candidates
Voter Participation: The Lowest in Parliamentary Elections
The Parliamentary Elite
Transformation of the Parliamentary Elite
The Average Age of the Deputies
Occupational Backgrounds of the Deputies
Level of Education
Party Affiliation
Electoral Issues
Incentives for Voters and Candidates
Change in the 1992 Elections: The Role of the Aqtab and their 'Electoral Machine'

Part Three

Elections With Imposed Choice
State Versus Society and the Packaging of Deadlocks
Non-competitive Elections to the Benefit of Another State



1: Distribution of Seats by Sect and Constituency, 1992
2: Distribution of Seats by Sect, 1943-92
3: Distribution of Seats by Muhafaza, 1943-92
4: The 1992 Electoral Law Compared with Previous Electoral Laws
5: Discrepancies in the Number of Seats per Voter in the Largest and Smallest Constituencies, 1943-92
6: Number of Winners by Votes of the Candidate's Sect and by Votes of Other Sects, 1992
7: Number of Winners by Votes of the Candidate's Sect and by Votes of Other Sects, 1972
8: Number of Winners by Constituency in Unopposed Electoral Contests, 1992
9: Number and Percentage of Winners by Sect in Unopposed and Nominally-Opposed Electoral Contests, 1992
10: Ratio of Candidates to Seats, 1960-92
11: Ratio of Candidates to Seats by Sect, 1992
12: Voting Participation by Region, 1960-92
13: Female Candidates, 1953-92
14: Age Group by Sect, 1992
15: Date of Entry to Parliament, 1943-92
16: Occupational Distribution of Deputies by Sect, 1992
17: Educational Level of Deputies by Sect, 1992
18: Number and % of Party Members by Muhafaza, 1964-92
19: Parties in Parliament by Sect and Constituency, 1972-92
20: Party members by Sect, 1972-92



1: Number of Winners in Unopposed or Nominally-opposed Electoral Contests Among Christians and Non-Christians, 1992
2: Voter Participation by Constituency, 1992
3: New Entrants in Lebanese Parliaments, 1943-92
4: Kinship Ties: Descendants of Parliamentary Families, 1943-92
5: Kinship Ties in the 1992 Parliament: Newcomers (a) and New Entrants (b)
6: Kinship Ties in Parliament, 1920-72
7: Trend in Age Group of Deputies in Percentage Terms, 1943-92
8: Age Group by Muhafaza, 1992
9: Occupational Distribution of Deputies, 1968-92
10: Occupational Distribution of New Entrants, 1992
11: Educational Level of Deputies, 1943-92
12: Number and Percentage of Deputies from Parties involved in the War in the 1992 Parliament

Created by the Digital Documentation Center at AUB in collaboration with Al Mashriq of Høgskolen i Østfold, Norway.

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